Oxford Biblical Studies Online is a subscription service for institutions that gives access to many biblical studies resources produced by the press.It also features current essays that stand on this side of the paywall, written on contemporary issues.In a shameless self-promoting plug, I’d direct you to this link to see my latest publication.You see, I’m not alone in looking at Bible through the lens of horror.As the acknowledgements to Holy Horror reveal, many conversations were going on that led to that book.While the ideas contained in it are my own, I’m by no means the only one to have noticed that the Good Book makes guest appearances in genre fiction.One of the points I made to my students when I held a teaching post was that the Bible is ubiquitous in our culture, whether we know it or not.Just look at the Republican Party and beg to differ.
The idea is not without precedent.For those who read the Bible real horror isn’t hard to find.The Good Book can be quite a scary book.Consider for just a moment the final installment—Revelation, apart from being full of amazing imagery, is an amazingly violent book.Attack helicopters and atomic bombs may not yet have been invented, but there was no shortage of ways to kill people in the pre-gunpowder world.Revelation paints the world in the throes of horrible suffering and death.Indeed, the completely fictional Left Behind series rejoices in the death of the unrighteous who are, well, left behind.Even today there’s a significant segment of “Christianity” that rejoices in the chaos Trump has unleashed.
In the OBSO article I sketch a brief history of how this came to be.The history could work in the other direction as well.The fact is the Bible and horror have always gone fairly well together.Among genre literature, however, horror is a distinctive category only after the eighteenth century (CE).Early horror novels, under the guise of Gothic fiction, often involve religious elements.Culture was already biblically suffused then.This is a natural outgrowth of a would steeped in violence.Personally, I don’t like gore.I don’t watch horror to get any kind of gross-out fix.My purposes are somewhat different than many viewers, I suspect.What we do all have in common, though, is that we realize horror has something honest to say to us.And it has been saying it to us since from in the beginning.
Pseudepigrapha always struck me as a great name for a pet guinea pig.Neither members of the porcine family nor from Guinea, these rodents are remarkably companionable.But like the word pseudepigrapha, this post isn’t about guinea pigs.I’ve been reading various documents among this sprawling category of texts, and I can see the fascination they hold for scholars of Second Temple Judaism.My own specialization was on the earlier end of the spectrum—Ugarit had ceased to exist even before a first temple was built and provided clues to how this whole religion got started in the first place, but that’s a story for another time.The account of the pseudepigraphacannot be summarized easily.Some of the documents have been known to scholars for a very long time.Others have been (and continue to be) discovered, some quite recently.
Not a pig.
The documents classified as pseudepigrapha generally bear the name of someone who couldn’t have been their “author.”We now know that ancients didn’t think of writing the same way we do.They didn’t publish books like modern writers do, and scholars have been exploring how the category of “book” distorts even the Bible, let alone books that didn’t make the cut.None of this diminishes the intrigue of these ancient texts.The world into which Jesus of Nazareth was born contained many texts and traditions.There was no Bible as we know it today—it was still being written (or compiled)—and no canon, literally a measuring stick, existed to determine what was holy and what was not.
As discoveries in Mesopotamia have made clear, although few could read or write, writing itself was prolific, at least given the technological limitations.Today if one wishes to specialize the literature of one subsection of one time period, and probably even some subdivision of that, has to be selected.Universities don’t see the point, and much of this ancient material is understudied because there remains money to be made in looking at economically viable topics.The pseudepigrapha have nevertheless come into their own.Perhaps because some of the stories these documents contain have made their way into pop culture.Even as I make my way through many of these texts that are young in my eyes, I realize the proliferation of writing made such growth almost inevitable.There remains, however, a high-pitched squealing that demands attention, regardless of what the exact genus and species of the creature may be.
The problem with history is that it shows foundational views are constantly shifting.Let me preface this statement by noting that although I taught Hebrew Bible for many years my training was primarily as an historian of religion.More specifically, the history of a religious idea that shifted over time.My dissertation on the topic of Asherah required specialization in Ugaritic and in the religions of the ancient world that included Israel.I have subsequently been researching the history of ideas, and my current, apparently non-sequiturial books on horror and the Bible are simply a further development of that interest.The focus has shifted more toward the modern period, but the processes of uncovering history remain the same.Many people don’t like horror.I get that.It is, however, part of the larger picture.
History, to get back to my opening assertion, is not fixed.It’s also tied to the dilemma that I often face regarding religion.Since Jesus of Nazareth never wrote anything down, and since Paul of Tarsus was writing to specific groups with their own issues, no systematic theology of Christianity emerged during that crucial first generation.What eventually grew was an evolving set of premises claimed both by Catholicism and Orthodoxy to be the original.Neither really is.Then Protestantism made claims that the establishment had it wrong and the Bible, which was a bit ad hoc to begin with, was the only source for truth.It’s a problematic source, however, and systems built upon it have also continued to evolve.Herein lies the dilemma.With stakes as high as eternal damnation, the wary soul wants to choose correctly.There is no way, though, to test the results.
Eventually a decision has to be made.Christian history is full of movements where one group or another has “gone back” to the foundations to reestablish “authentic” Christianity.The problem is that centuries have intervened.That “original” worldview, and the sources to reconstruct that worldview, simply no longer exist.The primitivist religions have to back and fill a bit in order to have any foundation at all.What emerges are hybrid religions that think they’re pristine originals.Historians know, however, that no originals exist.We have no original biblical manuscripts.Teachings of Catholicism, and even Orthodoxy, change in response to the ongoing nature of human knowledge.History contains no instructions for getting behind the curtain to naked reality itself.At the same time the stakes have not changed.The consequences are eternal.Those who choose must do so wisely.
Image credit: NASA/ISS Expedition 28, public domain from Wikimedia Commons
They call it reentry, I suspect, because of the perils and stress experienced by astronauts reentering the earth’s atmosphere.If the calculations are off, you either burn up or bounce back into the void.Neither is a pleasant prospect.It is also the feeling many of us experience at returning to work after the holidays.We’ve had a taste of life without gravity, then suddenly you’re back into the thick of things.It didn’t help that among my accumulated emails (I do not check work emails during my few allotted vacation days or holidays) was the notice of the sudden death of fellow scholar Gary Knoppers.Gary’s interest early on included Ugaritic, before shifting to Second Temple Studies.I once asked him over breakfast if he recalled the question I posed as a grad student when he presented an Ugaritic paper back in Kansas City.Of course he didn’t; I don’t recall any questions I was ever asked either.(With one exception.)
Gary died prematurely, just back before Christmas.The usual venues for finding out such news, like the Society of Biblical Literature portal, were also on vacation.It is maybe best that I didn’t learn about it until reentry.Still, it didn’t make it any easier.I can’t claim to have known Gary very well, but the suddenness with which someone you know dies can lead to shock.Not so much the fact of death itself, but that it has claimed someone you knew.I was working with him on a book idea for my employer.We had traded health complaints about not being young men anymore.It’s all so very human.
On Ash Wednesday a couple years back one of my colleagues asked if I was going to get ashes.I replied that I thought about death every day and that I didn’t need ashes to remind me.She thought it was a funny response, but it is actually true.One benefit of my religious upbringing is that it early took away the fear of dying.Since all people have to face mortality, it never made sense to me to fear it.That doesn’t mean the same thing as wanting to die, but the price to pay is frequent visits to the valley of the shadow in my mind.I was merely being honest that Ash Wednesday; my interest in horror is, by the way, related to that constant awareness.Gary was a productive scholar and a kindly man.Learning of his death so soon after the holidays became its own kind of reentry.And a reminder that January looks both forward and back.
Driving into upstate New York via interstate 81 you’ll find a remarkable rest stop.To put this into context, I should say that my wife and I have driven from Maine to Washington (not on a single trip) and from Wisconsin to Louisiana and South Carolina.We’ve laid down considerable mileage together, and never have we encountered such a nice rest stop.Clean, modern, and featuring local goods for sale, it’s a loving homage to the southern tier, the New York outside the city.One of the features of this unusual facility is a terrazzo floor fresco highlighting the various points of interest within a couple hours’ drive.Mostly when we stop here we look toward Binghamton and Ithaca, the cities we most frequently visit.We stop to use the restroom and then drive on.
When we stopped over the holidays, however, we lingered a little bit.There’s a display on Mark Twain—he lived in Elmira, New York for a time—and there’s an in-ground plaque outside to Rod Serling.I spent some time looking over the points of interest in the floor map when my wife pointed out a site listed as Hobart Book Village of the Catskills.I couldn’t believe that I’d been in this building dozens of times but had never bothered to look that far east.Curious, I did a web search once we reached out destination.There is, it turns out, a village in upstate known for its main street of book stores.What perhaps impressed me even more was that it was considered significant enough to be given a kind of “Hollywood star” treatment in what is an often overlooked part of the state.
Now I can’t say what my impressions of Hobart are.I’ve never been there, having just learned of it on a recent roadtrip.What I can say is that my world suddenly began to feel just a bit more friendly knowing that such a place exists.We live in a country that could indeed use a bit more positive influence.Some of my happiest memories involve bookstores.Back in my teaching days we made regular autumnal literary weekend trips, visiting sites haunted by writers.Often we’d find an independent bookstore near such sacred places.To many, I realize, this would smack of nonsense, but to those ensconced in literary dreams, it created pleasant memories.You feel something in the air as you stand near the house or grave of an author.Places are made sacred by what transpires within them.The writing of books shapes the very space-time around them.At least it does for those who even find inspiration in an interstate rest stop.
How many people read a blog on a major holiday?The process of writing takes no vacations, however, and I often think of holidays as a time to write.It doesn’t really matter if anyone reads it; writing is our witness to the cosmos that “Kilroy was here.”Even if most of us have no idea who Kilroy was.So I find myself awake earlier than most children on Christmas morning.My long habit of rising early to catch the bus hasn’t been easy to break. I creep down the stairs and water the tree before turning on its colorful lights.I make a cup of coffee and wash the dishes left in the sink after a festive Christmas Eve.And I think.There’s always the thinking.
The meaning of Christmas, as the holiday classic tells us, eludes Charlie Brown.Linus van Pelt gives one rendition—that of the Gospel of Luke—as the canonical meaning, but in my experience it shifts during a lifetime.Christmas, after all, is one of a host of solstice celebrations.My thinking these days is that it’s all about light.Shimmering angels, glowing stars, light coming into the darkness.These ideas seem to have, for the most part, Zoroastrian origins, but they’ve been thoroughly appropriated and, in true American style, commercialized.The news headlines read how disappointed retailers always are.The take could’ve been bigger.Capitalism relies on Christmas to make the third quarter.Light in the darkness, in its own distorted way.
As I sit for these quiet moments in the glow of only a tree, I think of those for whom the holiday has become a kind of disappointment.Not a cheery Christmas thought, I know, but an honest one.As families grow and diversify the childhood Christmas of excited children scrambling under the tree to excavate the next gift for me starts to fade.Our economic system separates, and the dearth of days off around the holidays makes travel back to childhood homes difficult.We do the best we can, but the fact is the sixties (speaking for me) are over.Our reality is colder and darker than it used to be.I part the curtains and look for any sign of dawn.It will be a few hours yet before the sun brightens this winter sky, but then, that’s what the holiday has come to mean for me.At least this year, it is the hope of light returning.And that, alone, makes it a holiday.
I’ve been reading about Paul.You know, that Paul.What has struck me from this reading is that if he weren’t in the Bible rational people would likely think Paul was writing nonsense.Getting into the Good Book is a big score, for sure, but a close look at what this particular apostle wrote does raise eyebrows, as well as questions.Over my editing years I’ve discovered quite a few methods of dealing with the saint from Tarsus, but what they really point to is the elephant in the room—we don’t really know what Paul was on about.A few basic facts stand out: the Paul of Acts doesn’t match the Paul of the authentic letters, and although Paul never met Jesus he became the architect of much of Christianity.
There’s a reason that I focused my doctoral work on the Hebrew Bible rather than the New Testament.Still, it remains fascinating to look closely at Paul’s claims.At some points he sounds downright modern.Like a Republican he declares that he can be tried by no human power.Specially selected by God himself, he can’t be judged by the standards of normal people.This is dangerous territory even for those who eventually end up in the Good Book, especially since it wasn’t written as an abstraction, but to a specific readership in a specific place dealing with specific issues.Galatia wasn’t the same as Corinth.The issues at Philippi weren’t the same as those in Rome.Yet, being in Scripture makes all his musings equally inspired.
The more we learn about Scripture the more difficult it becomes.Perceptions evolve over time, and we know nothing about how various books were selected.There are no committee minutes.We don’t even know the committee’s name or if it was ad hoc or standing.With repeated and long-term use these books became Bible.Take Paul’s letters—it’s virtually certain that we don’t have them all.He makes reference to letters that we don’t have.What might he have written therein?Is part of divine revelation missing?The discovery of other gospels and many contemporary religious texts to those that made the Bible cut raises questions that can only be resolved with the category “inspiration.”Christianity isn’t unified enough to add any more books, although some sects do nevertheless.Paul is very much like that—an example of not being subject to human trial.For a founder of a major religion we know surprisingly little about him.