Sometimes I miss Ancient West Asian/Near Eastern studies. I spent a good number of years in that academic field and now that I’m out of it my work is starting to get noticed. Horror, it seems, helps make sense of things. In any case, I recently saw a piece on the Agade listserv about the ancient Greek afterlife. In it Patricia Claus ponders how although the Greeks had Hades in charge of “Hell” (which wasn’t really Hell), there is no god in charge of Elysium, or paradise. I hadn’t really thought of that before. Heaven in the sky is originally a Zoroastrian idea, and even then it was really on a very high mountain. Christianity made it the home of its one God and the place where the faithful end up.
Elysium was where blessed Greeks spent eternity. Nobody seems to have been in charge. Would gods have interfered with paradise? This was a new idea. Gods, in the ancient imagination, made the rules because they were more powerful than us. Human social and ethical norms projected on high. Would humans in paradise act any differently if there were no gods to police them? Perhaps the most disturbing thing about some strict Christians is that they say if God hadn’t prohibited things we’d all be doing nasty stuff to each other all the time. I often wonder if that says something about their psychological makeup. Whether there’s a God or not I wouldn’t want to hurt anyone else. I think those with a high moral standard might keep those with a low one (e.g. Republicans) in check.
The afterlife has perhaps disproportionately affected how we think. Life is decidedly not fair. There are plenty of selfish people who prosper, especially with a capitalistic system. Many good people suffer and, I suspect, Heaven is a consolation to them for making through a world set against them. They’re already good, do they need a God to keep them that way? Some strains of Christianity decided people were innately wicked. Again, I have to wonder what this says about the Augustines and Calvins and others who could see no good in what they believed God created and declared “very good.” Their punishing God offers the consolation prize of a Heaven for those who put up with all the strictures imposed by that very deity. The Greeks, it seems, had a very different idea of the blessed fields. The heavenly hall-pass was not required.