In a conversation with a professional colleague recently, I was discussing what might happen to ethics when sex with machines becomes common. That statement might seem a little bizarre out of context, so let me widen the net a bit. We were discussing the Bible and sexual ethics. This led to the question of how those who apply the Bible straight from antiquity might apply their beliefs to a world vastly different than first century Palestine. In biblical times, in other words, sexual options were limited and people didn’t understand the whole issue of human sperm and eggs, neither of which can be seen without a microscope. Applying their outlook directly to today is problematic, and so how do we apply a book without outdated views to a world vastly more complicated?
Someone recently paid me a small debt via PayPal. If sex is complicated, then let’s not even get started on Bitcoin or Apple Pay—for some of us money is money and even getting paid electronically is somewhat suspicious. I sometimes buy things online with PayPal. It goes straight onto one of my credit cards and then I write an old-fashioned check to pay for it. So I had to approach the altar of PayPal itself to figure out what it meant to have money in my account. What am I to do with it? Then I found the FAQ—TFIA (The Future Is Acronyms). One of the questions: “What is PayPal’s policy on transactions that involve sexually oriented goods and services?” Now, here’s a question of biblical proportions.
Paying for sexual “goods and services” goes all the way back to the book of Genesis when none other than the ancestor of David and later progeny did so. This is nothing new. But the question of ethics now looms extra large. For those who pay for such things, a new layer of complexity has apparently been added—can you pay with PayPal? My transaction had to do with tickets purchased for a concert online, where we wanted seats together so someone had to do the buying for everyone. What if the purchase had involved a somewhat more intimate setting? Who needs paper or plastic when a string of 16-digits, or even a username and password, will do? That’s to say nothing regarding the ethics of the transaction—this is, as it were, purely mechanical. What would Moses say? Surely this is a question of appropriate tips, for Tamar veiling herself by the side of the road had the moral high ground over her father-in-law who was simply looking for a good time. A staff and seal, however, were no less complicated that paying for goods and services online.
Posted in Bible, Genesis, Just for Fun, Popular Culture, Posts, Robotics
Tagged biblical ethics, biblical sexuality, Genesis, Judah and Tamar, morality, PayPal
It was a guilty pleasure read. We’d just moved and I needed a new novel for bed-time reading. Most of our undamaged books were still boxed up and, well, enough excuses: I like Dark Shadows novels. Hardly well written, these pulp potboilers are like extended, Gothic Scooby-Doo episodes. I first started finding them used at Goodwill when I was a kid and I’ve re-collected a number of them as an adult. Although they feature a vampire, and sometimes a werewolf and witch, the crisis of the story generally devolves to a hoax at Collinwood. So it was with Barnabas, Quentin and the Avenging Ghost. I hadn’t thought to write a blog post about it until I came across a passage mentioning Rocain. In context, one of the characters explains how Rocain, the son of Seth, shows that sorcery goes all the way back to Genesis.
Genesis was one of my lines of research during my academic career, although I never published anything I was working on. I didn’t, however, recall having read about Rocain. The internet quickly pointed me to Legends of Old Testament Characters by Sabine Baring-Gould, chapter 8. Clearly this was where Marilyn Ross, or his source, got his information. Baring-Gould sits on my shelf as the author of The Book of Were-Wolves. He also wrote the hymn “Onward, Christian Soldiers.” There was an era, overlapping with Baring-Gould’s lifetime, when a minister could be an independent scholar of repute. Although much that’s found in his many publications is now disputed, his was a lively and lifelong curiosity that led to several books.
Upon reflection, Sabine Baring-Gould, who was a priest fascinated by occult topics, would have fit quite well into the Dark Shadows diegesis. Although set in the late 1960s into the mod ‘70s when the television show aired, these were Victorian vignettes of a conflicted vampire and his strange, wealthy, and somewhat clueless family. All kinds of guests, some of them quite Lovecraftian, drop into the Maine mansion and its grounds. The writing of the novels is tepid at best, but the series was surprisingly literate. Dark Shadows is nevertheless undergoing a kind of revival these days, and friends sometimes tell me they’ve just discovered this oddly compelling world. I invite them in. I’ve unpacked a few more boxes since selecting this pulp novel, and one of them, I note, holds books by Sabine Baring-Gould. The guilty pleasure read?
Posted in Bible, Books, Genesis, Just for Fun, Monsters, Popular Culture, Posts
Tagged Barnabas, Barnabas Collins, Dark Shadows, Legends of Old Testament Characters, Marilyn Ross, Quentin and the Avenging Ghost, Rocain, Sabine Baring-Gould, The Book of Were-Wolves
Chaos is a monster. More than personal opinion, that’s a biblical view. If, like many modern people with theological training, you’ve been taught that Genesis narrates a creation out of nothing, you’ve become a victim of this monster. You see, although ancient Israel had no “systematic theology”—the Bible can be quite inconsistent if you’re willing to read what it says—the view that chaos was constantly lurking outside the ordered realm of creation was a common one. One of the more intriguing episodes in Ugaritic mythology involves a broken text where the god Hadad, aka Baal, refuses to allow a window in his palace. The reason? Apparently he feared chaos (in the form of Yam, the sea) might slip in and kidnap his daughters.
More than a theological statement, the story of creation was actually a singular episode in Yahweh’s ongoing struggle against chaos. Step outside and look at the sky. If it’s blue it’s because there’s unruly water being held back by a great dome over our heads. If it’s gray, it may be raining, or it probably will be soon. Stroll to where the land ends. What do you see? Water. That water is lapping at land, trying to take it over. Although the ancients didn’t have geologic ages (the Mesopotamians came close, with ancient kings living thousands of years) rivers eroded land and they had tendencies to flood. The thing about chaos is that it makes you start again, from the beginning.
One of the many unfortunate things about biblical literalism is that it loses sight of this biblical truth. It exchanges something everyone can understand for a theological abstraction that makes no sense in the world that we experience. Ancient belief held that the human role in the world was to fight chaos, not to get to Heaven. In fact, in the Hebrew Bible there’s no concept of Heaven at all. Instead, the commandments were all about order. You can’t build on the water. What you do build water tries to wash away—Israel has a rainy season, and one of the characteristics of such seasons is the occasional violent storm and heavy rains. Although we need the water from the heavens, heavy rains cause, well, chaos. In ancient thought, this was the monster hiding in plain sight. That blue sky is a reminder that a dragon awaits. Rather than starry-eyed Heaven-gazers, the ancient biblical person was a monster-fighter. And that’s the biblical truth.
Posted in American Religion, Bible, Deities, Genesis, Monsters, Posts, Religious Violence, Ugarit, Weather
Tagged Baal Cycle, Chaos, Chaoskampf, Dragon, Ugaritic Texts, water
One of the problems with driving is that you can’t get pictures of billboards. Well, given the way people drive around here, I suspect that may not always be true. Nevertheless, I always think of billboards as trying to sell something. There’s sometimes fairly easy to shut out, but in long stretches of otherwise uninteresting road you fall into their trap. Now having grown up in western Pennsylvania, we always thought the people out east—Philadelphia was the largest city in the state, after all—were more sophisticated. It is around here, however, that I often see billboards selling evangelical Christianity. If you put out your wares, you’ve got something to sell. Money to make.
As I was traveling that stretch of somewhat plain highway 33 between Stroudsburg and Easton I noticed a billboard reading “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.” To shore up its academic credentials the billboard footnoted Genesis 1:1. An inspirational sunrise, if I recall, shown over the Bible. Of to the left—of course to the left!—was a small “no circle” and inside the famous skeletal progression from ape to human. The message was “no evolution.” The more I pondered this, the more strange it became. Most Americans are well aware that billboards aren’t exactly the locus of truth. They are gimmicks to try to get you into the store. Like the one a few miles down that advertises the world’s largest humidor; even those with no interest in tobacco might feel just a touch curious what such a place might look like. Why would you take your most intimate personal beliefs and put them on a billboard? Does that make evolution any less likely?
A strange perception has lately taken over this country. The idea that an individual’s wants equate with the truth. Shout it loud enough and it has to be true. Billboards would never stretch the truth, would they? Is that image enlarged to show texture or what? And wouldn’t a better choice of anti-evolution rhetoric have been Genesis 2? That’s where God makes Adam from lowly dirt. Yes, Genesis 1 gives us the dramatic six-day creation, but Genesis 2 manages to say it all happened in one day—isn’t that more in keeping with capitalistic ideals? Greater efficiency leads to greater profits, after all. And profits, we all know, are the real purpose behind billboards for any product under the sun.
Posted in American Religion, Bible, Bibliolatry, Creationism, Evolution, Genesis, Posts, Science, Sects
Tagged billboards, capitalism, evangelicalism, Genesis 1, western Pennsylvania
The ancient divine world was a slippery place. When you stop to think about it, this makes sense. The deities and demons of antiquity were invisible. Different opinions existed as to what they were. The idea of “the Bible” that contains infallible information didn’t exist. Apart from the books now accepted by Protestants, the “Apocrypha” and even more fun Pseudepigrapha contained many more traditions than the average reader might guess. I’ve been a student of that ancient divine world for decades now, and I learned quite a bit from The Watchers in Jewish and Christian Traditions, edited by Angela Kim Harkins, Kelley Coblentz Bautch, and John C. Endres, S.J. Appropriately divided into three parts (origins of fallen angels, Second Temple developments, and Jewish and Christian reception) these collected essays explore different dimensions of these mysterious beings.
Watchers are seldom mentioned in the Bible, in just a few verses of Daniel. In some traditions they are high angels—think the hymn that includes the word “ye Watchers and ye holy ones”—but mostly they are fallen angels. If you limit yourself to the Good Book you really get only four verses of Genesis 6 to explain them. Other ancient writers, some of whom likely influenced the New Testament, took up the subject. The book of 1 Enoch contains a section called The Book of the Watchers. Here the Watchers come down to earth with a couple of purposes—to share forbidden secrets with humanity, and to mate with human women. The offspring of these matings are giants, Nephilim, or demons. Perhaps all three. These events are retold in Jubilees and are taken up by early Christian writers especially.
Although this book isn’t a monograph with conclusions based on all the information it contains, it nevertheless gives a very good sense of the various traditions that developed around these Watchers. Even when reading through the Bible as a child, the Genesis 6 episode caught me off guard. The story isn’t highlighted in children’s Bibles, and the way it’s told in Hebrew leaves a lot of ambiguities in the adult reader’s mind. It’s almost as if this brief account is bing kept deliberately obscure. The Good Book drops this bomb then blithely goes on its way without mentioning it again. This episode reminds us just how little the Bible clarifies. It wasn’t written to be the “inerrant word of God,” and those heady days just after Eden were full of stories that it never bothered to tell. The Watchers, meanwhile, made their way into popular culture because the silence of Scripture allows readers to fill in the blanks with either angels or demons.
Posted in Bible, Books, Deities, Genesis, Posts, Religious Origins
Tagged 1 Enoch, Angela Kim Harkins, angels, demons, John C. Endres, Kelley Coblentz Bautch, nephilim, The Book of the Watchers, The Watchers in Jewish and Christian Traditions, watchers
According to the Good Book, Methuselah lived nearly a millennium. For all that, the information on him in Genesis occurs in a mere five verses, in a span of seven. We learn when he married, whom he sired, and how long he lived. Not much information of the last antediluvian, especially considering how much time he had. When I searched for him on the web the other day, the information box that showed up on Google had, at the very top, a picture of Anthony Hopkins. I immediately recognized his makeup from Noah, a movie that I just can’t make myself love. The fault for having no other image may be the failure of human imagination—where do we find an image of a thousand-year old?
The internet mediates our reality. One of the points of both my books now in the works is that modern understanding of the Bible is largely media based. Few people have the time or inclination to read such a big book. (Given the continued evangelical support of Trump, it’s pretty clear that most of them haven’t read it either.) We want other people to do the heavy lifting and give us a summary in neat little boxes at the top of the screen. There’s far too many things to do in this tangled web to be spending months reading a ponderous, outdated tome, even if it does have plenty of sex and violence. Even if it influences the lives of each and every person living in America every single day. We’d rather have someone else—preferably not some egghead with a Ph.D.—give us the executive summary.
Once I did the math. If you add up the dates in what I used to call “Genesis years,” the year Methuselah died was the year of the flood. The Bible doesn’t say that old Methuselah drowned when the windows of heaven were opened, but it’s a reasonable conjecture. Nature abhors, it seems, a human being living so long. Our bodies just aren’t built for it. Some trees, on the other hand, have been alive for thousands of years. Botanists call them “Methuselah trees” (I told you the Good Book influences everything!). The pity is we know so very little about this ancient human being from days of yore. Was he a good man? He seems to have been washed out in the sluice gates of what became one great universal sewer at the time. Although we know little, his life would make quite an epic movie, I think. We already have an actor lined up, for Google tells me so.
Posted in American Religion, Bible, Genesis, Movies, Popular Culture, Posts, Religious Violence
Tagged Anthony Hopkins, Genesis, media, Methuselah, Noah, Noah's Flood