“Storms are the embodiment of Mother Nature’s flair for the dramatic, and the words that we use to write about them are infused with that drama,”—the words aren’t mine, but they express something I often acknowledge.The quote comes from a Verbomania post about the word “brontide”—a noun for things that sound like distant thunder.Weather-related words are indeed part of the religious vocabulary as well.I wasn’t quite daring enough to suggest it in Weathering the Psalms, but it seems that thunder may be behind most basic religious beliefs.Well, that and bad luck.Think about it—most cultures have a very powerful storm-deity.That power is expressed in thunder.Even in the twenty-first century a sudden clap can made the sophisticated duck and cover.
We don’t know as much about ancient Mesopotamian culture as we’d like to, but it’s pretty clear that storm deities commanded major of respect.Eventually in the city-state of Ugarit, in what is now northern Syria, a god named Hadad (aka “thunderer”) became the patron of the city and was known mainly by his title “lord” (Baal).There may have been more than one lord, but the one in charge of day-to-day affairs was the one who controlled storms.We’ve entered another rainy season around here (something you tend to notice when the roof leaks), and my thoughts often turn to how very much the weather controls us.Interestingly, thunder hasn’t been much in the picture.We’ve lived in our house coming up on a year and I have been awoken by thunder (something that still scares me as much as when I was a kid) only once.Thunder is the approach of gods.
There’s drama about the weather.In fact, fiction writers have long known that one of the most effective ways to suggest the mood of a story is the meteorological method.Weather sets the scene.The sound of distant thunder has a naturally ominous, almost predatory quality.The growling, low and loud bursts from the sky sound so like human expressions of rage that it is only natural that they should be interpreted this way.Since the sky is (or used to be) out of the reach of humans, the sounds from above were from the realm of the divine.When gods approach the mood is threatening.We dare not meet them.That mythology has long informed our perceptions of meteorological phenomenon, acknowledged or not.Brontide is an underused word that brings the drama of both nature and the divine together. It could be a psalm word.
As someone always interested in origins, I reflect on how I’ve ended up the way I have.I mean, who plans to end up a Bibles editor?In the grand scheme of a universe with a sense of humor, it’s an odd job.I grew up reading the Bible, but lots of people do.Most of them end up with ordinary people jobs.Obviously, working on a doctorate in the field is admittedly strange, but then, my interests have always been to get to the truth.The other day I spotted a book on my shelf—the book that arguably started it all.The Lost Books of the Bible and The Forgotten Books of Eden.These days I would recognize this for what it is, a cheap reprint of a book published quite some time ago (1926 and 1927).No “value added content.”Just a reprint.But why did this book have such influence?
It was the first time I’d realized—and growing up in poverty with parents lacking college educations you have to teach yourself a lot—that there were other books about as old as the Bible.The idea fascinated me.Somehow my fundamentalist upbringing had convinced me the Bible was the first book ever written—after all, its author was God and how much more primordial can you get?Now this particular book (Lost Books of the Bible etc.) contains some apocryphal Gospels.Not having a strong grasp on the concept of canon, I wondered why these books had been excluded, or, to use the title conceit, “lost” and “forgotten.”In college I would learn about the canonical process.I’d hear more about it in seminary.There I would learn that even older sources existed.In the pre-internet days, in a rural town without so much as a public library, how would you find out about such things?
Helmer Ringgren’s Israelite Religion captured my imagination in seminary.Even there, however, nobody on the faculty seemed to know much about what had come before the Bible.Harrell Beck told us of ancient Egypt in our classes, but clearly there were further depths to plumb.I learned about James Pritchard’s Ancient Near Eastern Texts, which I bought at the Harvard Divinity School bookstore.Other texts went back beyond Holy Writ.Just how far would have to wait until the University of Edinburgh.I sometimes wonder if I might’ve taken a different turn here or there had anyone been able to answer my young, unformulated questions about the origins of the Bible and other ancient books.Now we just have to ask the internet.
The history of Israel and its neighbors has been appropriated deeply in the mindset of western cultures.Both the British and Americans, for example, have thought themselves the “new Israel,” for once a people is chosen so all people wish to be.I’ve been thinking about this in linguistic terms of late.To get to the main point, we need to read a little history—it’ll be painless, I assure you.Israel was a nation frequently conquered.The imperial powers to the east, beginning with Assyria and continuing through Babylonia and Persia, overran the land. This hostile takeover involved not only Israel, but its neighboring nations as well.These early, violent attempts at globalization worked themselves out linguistically, in part, by the necessity to communicate in a common language.
In the broad sweep of world history, the conquering nation tends to impose its language on the conquered.Think of Alexander of Macedon and the adoption of Greek as the “lingua franca”—the official language of empire.Ironically—and this is what captures my attention—when Assyria overran Israel, it also conquered “Aram.” (Aram was the area north of Israel, roughly what we think of as Syria today.Their language was Aramaic, which is closely related to Hebrew.)Instead of the Assyrian language being imposed on the defeated peoples, the invaders adopted Aramaic as the official imperial language.Some of this may have to do with the fact that Aramaic, being alphabetic, was much easier to learn to write than syllabic Assyrian (known generically as Akkadian, along with Babylonian and its dialects).It may have been the last time a conquering nation admitted at least some of the culture of the defeated was superior. (Ironically, the Romans felt that way about the Greeks. Those who have ears…)
Aramaic continued in favor even as the conquered adopted Alexander’s Indo-European Greek centuries later.Lingering into Roman times many of the people of what was left of Israel were bilingual, knowing Greek and Aramaic. The latter was the language of Jesus.Aramaic later survived in the form of Syriac, but the area was overrun by Arab invaders and Arabic became the lingua franca.Still, nestled in the middle of this linguistic history is that episode of the ascension of Aramaic to imperial levels.That’s the thing about globalization—it’s an exercise in compromise.Many distrust and hate it, and even today some sub-cultures fear they’re being wiped out by granting too much to those who “don’t belong.”In some ways it’s an understandable fear.Learning new languages is hard, especially for adults.There is perhaps a lesson in the survival of Aramaic, though, that might still come in handy when cultures collide.
Pseudepigrapha always struck me as a great name for a pet guinea pig.Neither members of the porcine family nor from Guinea, these rodents are remarkably companionable.But like the word pseudepigrapha, this post isn’t about guinea pigs.I’ve been reading various documents among this sprawling category of texts, and I can see the fascination they hold for scholars of Second Temple Judaism.My own specialization was on the earlier end of the spectrum—Ugarit had ceased to exist even before a first temple was built and provided clues to how this whole religion got started in the first place, but that’s a story for another time.The account of the pseudepigraphacannot be summarized easily.Some of the documents have been known to scholars for a very long time.Others have been (and continue to be) discovered, some quite recently.
Not a pig.
The documents classified as pseudepigrapha generally bear the name of someone who couldn’t have been their “author.”We now know that ancients didn’t think of writing the same way we do.They didn’t publish books like modern writers do, and scholars have been exploring how the category of “book” distorts even the Bible, let alone books that didn’t make the cut.None of this diminishes the intrigue of these ancient texts.The world into which Jesus of Nazareth was born contained many texts and traditions.There was no Bible as we know it today—it was still being written (or compiled)—and no canon, literally a measuring stick, existed to determine what was holy and what was not.
As discoveries in Mesopotamia have made clear, although few could read or write, writing itself was prolific, at least given the technological limitations.Today if one wishes to specialize the literature of one subsection of one time period, and probably even some subdivision of that, has to be selected.Universities don’t see the point, and much of this ancient material is understudied because there remains money to be made in looking at economically viable topics.The pseudepigrapha have nevertheless come into their own.Perhaps because some of the stories these documents contain have made their way into pop culture.Even as I make my way through many of these texts that are young in my eyes, I realize the proliferation of writing made such growth almost inevitable.There remains, however, a high-pitched squealing that demands attention, regardless of what the exact genus and species of the creature may be.
House-buying is perhaps best left for the young.Flexibility is, unfortunately, something that effaces with age, and house-buying is a rough transition at best.For anyone following this blog over the past month, the theme of moving is familiar.How we hired a moving company that didn’t get us in our new place until after 2:30 in the morning.How torrential rains came later and flooded our worldly goods temporarily stored in the garage.How mowing the lawn caused me to question my faith—wait—I haven’t told that one yet!Well, you get the picture.Suffice it to say that although I didn’t think moving would be easy, it’s been a lot more difficult than I could’ve possibly imagined.In the midst of it came a dove.
At times, I must confess, I’m tempted toward superstition.A strange significance between events that are, in actual fact, random.We’ve all read of people who buy a house and discover some secret treasure left stashed away in the attic.The former owners of our house only left undisclosed defects that become clear in periods of prolonged rain.Even so, as I was feeling as miserable as one of Ray Bradbury’s astronauts on Venus—yes, the precipitation does begin to drive you insane after a while!—I decided to try an impose some order on the chaos that is our garage (we haven’t had a dry weekend since moving in to transfer the soggy stuff to our house) I looked down.There, amid the screws and other little detritus left behind in the way of treasure, I found a dove charm.A dove sent after a flood.
The symbolism of the dove with hope is ancient indeed.It predates the Bible when it comes to a symbol that the flood is nearly over.The Mesopotamians also had a dove sent out from the ark, and I’m given to believe this is something ancient mariners, whether they rhymed or not, regularly did to assess if land was near.Unlike our heavy, wingless species, birds can soar over chaos.At least for a while.They are a symbol of hope.Was that dove sent to me on purpose at a time when I needed it, or was it just a random find, one of those too much stuff in a small world moments?There’s no way to assess that, I suppose.For me, on yet another rainy day, it’s a symbol of hope.The only other choice, it seems, would be to build an ark.
The world-wide flood is a great story. We find it in many cultures, so the idea obviously captured the attention of ancients as well as moderns. What’s strange is that, with the development of human knowledge so many people continue to accept it literally. The only science that can be bent enough to make it work is one where God breaks all the laws of physics and biology to kill everyone, just to make a point. Why bother to make it rain 40 or 150 days? Why not just create the requisite water instantaneously? It would be just as believable. Nevertheless, literalists look for explanations for how this might’ve happened. It’s not to convince God, of course. The goal is to convert unbelievers by showing that the myths of Genesis are literally true.
When I came across a story on Mysterious Universe by Paul Seaburn titled “Academic Claims Noah had Cell Phones, Drones and Nuclear Power,” I was hooked. The academic is a Turkish professor of marine sciences. Using modern technology—rather like the detritus seen scattered in the background of Darren Aronofsky’s recent movie version—he postulates that this could’ve happened. The real issue is why. Not why the flood; the Bible answers that. Why would a scientist feel the need to prove a myth scientifically? Biblical scholars call the flood story an etiology. An etiology is a story to explain the origins of things. That’s its purpose.
Noah’s flood explains why it rains. It also explains why this dome that covers our flat earth doesn’t fill all the way up anymore. It explains why animals are sacrificed and why rainbows occasionally appear to grace the sky after it rains. We also know that the story borrows from an even earlier Mesopotamian myth where the god who causes the flood isn’t even Yahweh. The people of Israel were conquered by the Assyrians and Babylonians and they told flood stories about their gods. The Bible counters with two stories (yes, just like the creation accounts) mixed together in this snow-globe universe of Genesis. Is it easier to believe this or to claim that Noah had access to Verizon, steel manufacturing, Einsteinian physics, remote-control flying machines, and artificial insemination (to help the animals recover)? It’s like when someone suggests natural explanations for the plagues of Egypt. Such special pleading doesn’t prove miracles, but rather it demonstrates that all this could happen without any gods involved. And you’re still going to have to mop up all that water when it’s over. I’m sure it will make for a great story some day.
The bases of truth are ever shifting, it seems. What was once decided by spiritual tests now finds technological solutions. A friend sent me a story from IFL Science (which, surprisingly, often focuses on religion) concerning a nun in seventeenth-century Italy. What makes this nun stand out is less than she had a mental disorder but more that she wrote that it came from the Devil. Her letter, however, was written in an indecipherable script and has only just been decoded. How? By using decoding software on the Deep Web. As someone who’s still lost on the surface web, I’m not sure whether diabolical possession or this mysterious sub-web is scarier. An even more profound question is why someone in this scientific age would resort to the Deep Web to diagnose the illness of a sequestered religious long dead.
Like Manhattan, which, I’m told, has many layers underground, the web has places you shouldn’t go. Computers linked promiscuously together have an amazing power, and apart from those of us who can while away hours looking at photos and videos of cats, there is a darker, more sinister area that can’t be accessed with Google. Down there, according to IFL Science, resides powerful code-cracking software that might be profitably turned to Linear A or Hurrian, but is used to decipher the centuries’ old note of a woman who believed she was possessed. I’m not knocking the achievement. Decades of research have apparently solved the conundrum of the Voynich Manuscript—we can’t stand having the ancient talk behind our backs—and yet try to get funding to hire an Assyriologist at your school. The vast majority of ancient Mesopotamian clay tablets remain untranslated in cellars as dark as the Deep Web.
There seems to be little doubt that Sister Maria Crocifissa della Concezione suffered from some form of mental illness. Even today some psychologists are starting to suggest that “possession” should be considered a viable option for diagnosing some cases that otherwise defy satisfactory resolution. This isn’t medieval superstition, but it is our understanding of a materialistic universe shoved up against a wall. We can’t stand not to know. Mental illness is as old as mentality. We can’t comprehend the vastness of this world, let alone this galaxy or this universe. Even very interesting stuff gets lost on the world-wide web. I don’t even want to think about what goes on in the infernal regions below it.