I’ve been reading a lot about China lately.Political scientists have been interested in its economic growth for some time and it has rivaled the GDP of the United States in such a way that it’s an open question as to which is the larger.With so many things to keep track of in daily life, I’m loathe to add poli sci to the list, but I’ve always found history fascinating.China has long been the target of Christian missionaries.Finding a culture that had developed quite differently, in some sense socially distant, they were anxious to make them in their own image.China had its own religious heritage of folk traditions, Confucian beliefs, and Taoism (as well as Buddhism and Islam), and Christianity’s claim of being the only true religion caused considerable social turmoil.One such event was the Taiping Rebellion in the nineteenth century.
Image credit: Wu Youru, via Wikimedia Commons
A complaint of evangelical pastors, even in the United States, after Billy Graham had come through town was that local people, all riled up on revivalism, had unrealistic expectations for what their local churches could do.Viewing this from a different angle, the issue was that one outlook on Scripture could lead to consequences that others didn’t understand.The same thing applies to Taiping.Hong Xiuquan, the leader of the Taiping Rebellion, had read his Bible (the activity encouraged by missionaries) and became convinced he was the brother of Jesus Christ.He set about trying to establish what is called the Heavenly Kingdom.This clashed with the government of China during the Qing Dynasty.Eventually foreign powers even got involved.The end result was between ten and thirty million deaths.That’s right, ten to thirty million.
Religious ideas are powerful.This is one reason that repressive governments often try to outlaw religions.Other governments (including some not too far from here) use religions for political ends.True believers are great followers.I first learned about the Taiping Rebellion only relatively recently.I’ve been reading snippets about China for several years now.Its economic power may well be greater than that of the country in which I grew up.Perspectives are shifting.Vast numbers of people die because of religious conflicts.If you’re one of them the real tragedy is that, in Stalinistic terms, you become simply a statistic.There’s a reason authoritarian governments try to keep the opium from the hands of the people.I’m no political scientist, but history reveals much about religion and its discontents.
When the same religio-historic event is described in three consecutive books I’ve read on diverse topics, I start to consider what strange form of coincidence is operating here. Coincidences are some of the potent spices that give life flavor—the tragic death of Suzanne Hart on Wednesday when an elevator crushed her to death occurred the very day my bus was late and I took the route directly past her building to avoid the crowds on 42nd Street. What was the series of uncanny events that led me to where someone was about to die? It hardly seems within the divine character. So coincidences have been on my mind of late.
The last three books I read have all discussed the Taiping Rebellion that took place in the mid-nineteenth century. Despite having studied religion all of my life, I had never come across this religiously motivated violence until reading Daniele Bolelli’s 50 Things You’re Not Supposed to Know: Religion. Unrest in imperial China had existed before, but Hong Xiuquan, the leader of the rebellion, was motivated by religion. Xiuquan was a Christian (no doubt the fruit of missionary activity) who came to believe that he was Jesus’ younger brother. His motivation for the rebellion was based on his aberrant version of Christianity that quickly grew into a full-fledged movement calling itself the Heavenly Kingdom. Basing itself in Taiping, the movement adopted the early Christian practice of communal property and came to rule over about 30 million people. The numbers are what is truly stunning about this tragedy. When the conflict with the Qing Dynasty ended, about 20 million people were dead. The number is so high as to shut down comprehension. So many dead because of religion. It has a corporate feel to it.
Religion evolves. When it is spread into new cultures, syncretism takes over. Many religious believers, through faith, insist that their religion is the same as the founder propounded. Such simplistic understanding is not true. Culture, just like biology, lives and grows through evolution. The American Christian dressed in expensive clothes in a phenomenonally costly mega-church with a shining preacher bearing a million-dollar smile is about as far from a property-less, vagabond carpenter from Nazareth as you can get. Yet we still pretend. If that pastor says he is Jesus’ younger brother, chances are good that many will believe him. Stranger things have passed the lips of televangelists. Emotional involvement in religion easily leads the zealous to extreme action. History has demonstrated this time and again. The Taiping Rebellion of the Heavenly Kingdom proves the point, even if we’ve never heard of it. Maybe it is no coincidence after all.