A story in Discover back in December discusses cave drawings from Indonesia.Dating back almost 40,000 years before the creation of the world, these cave paintings represent the oldest yet discovered.The interesting thing about such cave art is the representation of figures—both human and animal—that are instantly recognizable.Scientists studying the art are able to identify likely species, but, as John Morehead pointed out on his Theofantastique Facebook post, there are also fantastical beasts.We might call them monsters.It’s interesting to see how scientific writers shift from their awe at life-like illustration to a nearly palpable embarrassment when the creatures become mythical.Indeed, the article itself suggests such figures point to a very early sense of either fiction or spirituality.The monstrous and religion have long trod parallel paths and we are only now beginning to explore the implications.
Monsters are beings over which we have no control.They don’t abide by human rules and often the only recourse against them is religious.When monsters come knocking, it’s often wise to drop to your knees.Or at least reach for your crucifix.Many rationalists like to claim that human civilization developed without religion.The discoveries at sites such as Göbekli Tepe gainsay that assessment, indicating that humans first gathered for religious reasons and agriculture and all the rest followed from that.Perhaps they came together for fear of monsters?That’s only a guess, but I recall the defensive tower of Jericho.The archaeologist lecturing us as we stood by this neolithic structure asked “What were they afraid of?”He never answered that question.
Bringing monsters into the discussion isn’t an attempt to make light of these significant discoveries.Rather, we need to learn to appreciate the fact that monsters are serious business.Religion, whether or not literally true, is important.Civilization has been running the opposite direction for some time now.When surveys emerge demonstrating that the vast majority of the world’s population is still religious, analysts frown.It does make me wonder, however, if nature itself programs us this way.To other sentient creatures who experience us as predators, humans must look monstrous.We come in a variety of colors and textures (clothing), we smell of deodorant, shampoo, soap, aftershave, or none of the above.We emit strange sounds (our music).Are we not the monsters of the natural world?And should animals develop religion, would we not be one of the causes?It’s just a guess, but I need to sit in my cave and think about it for a while.
It came to me vividly when I heard a speaker self-deferentially say he was crazy.This was, I suspect, a way of defusing the fact that when vegans speak others often think they’re being judgmental or preachy.I’m pretty sure this speaker wasn’t, and I try my best not to be.It can be difficult when you’re passionate about something.At the event, which included several people in age brackets more advanced than even mine, the question of “why” was predictably raised.Apart from the rampant cruelty of industrial farming—some states even have laws preventing people from knowing what actually goes on in such places—there are other considerations.One of them involves Greta Thunberg, Time magazine’s person of the year.
Global warming is no joke, no matter how much the Republican Church laughs it off.Greta Thunberg has become the face of a generation with a conscience, but one fact few wish to know is that industrial farming is by far the largest environmental threat to our planet.The amount of pollution it causes is staggering.The rain forests are being cleared for grazing land because people will buy beef.The largest methane emissions come from farms, not factories.Our lifestyle of eating animals on an industrial scale is one of the many hidden costs to the modern way of living.Or of dying. There are doubters, to be sure.It’s pretty clear, however, that the agriculture business is massive and it is just as powerful as the other great offender—the petroleum industry.
Making facts known isn’t being judgmental.People’s eating choices are up to them.I’ve only been a vegan for about two years now and I sometimes can’t comply with my own ethical standards when I go out to eat.Or when other people give food.Many places have no concept of dining without animal products.I’m not trying to make everyone else accept my standards; I have beliefs about animals that are based both on personal experience and lots of reading about faunal consciousness.I fully accept that many others don’t agree.What I do hope, however, is that people like the speaker I recently heard will not have to jokingly call themselves crazy because they’re vegan.The narrative must change.We must be willing to look at the way we live on this planet, and accept the fact that just because major polluting industries hide behind large, brown cow eyes doesn’t mean we shouldn’t question what they feed us.We need to look at our plates and count the cost.
Why not try Veg Out, Bethlehem’s new vegan restaurant, if you’re in the Valley?
Like those who write long books, those who write very many books ask for some level of commitment from their fans.I’m sure I’m not alone in wishing I had more time to read.I tend to be driven to Stephen King’s novels by the movies made around them, and there’s nothing wrong with that I suppose.I decided I wanted to read Cujo some years back when I was on a werewolf kick.I knew it wasn’t a werewolf story, yet as one who suffers from cynophobia even a large household pet will do.I didn’t know the story in advance, and I had no idea how it ended.It’s good to read novels like that sometimes.
I took it with me to San Diego and read most of it on the plane, finishing it somewhere over the mountain west.It is a bleak story, one of King’s more drawn-out and wrenching tales.It’s made more so by the fact that it could happen, at least in the main storyline.Or could have happened.Maybe I waited too long to read it, but I kept thinking as I was going through—today we have cell phones.A large part of this story unfolds because of Donna Trenton’s inability to contact anyone while a rabid dog keeps her trapped in her car during a record-breaking heat wave in Maine.I suspect it’s kind of a story about redemption, but I really need some time to think about it before rushing to such conclusions.There’s not much you can really consider religious in this particular tale, and perhaps it’s because Cujo is a very natural kind of monster.
I saw my first rabid dog when I was maybe five.My brothers and I reported a dog acting strange to our mother, after which she kept us in the house.That wasn’t the origin, I don’t think, of my cynophobia.Two of my brothers were bitten by a family dog when I was little, and I was once chased by a dog about as big as I was, certain that it was going to eat me.At the same time, we had dogs as pets, and apart from the one that liked to bite, they never gave cause for fear.Cujo tapped into those memories and made me reflect on what it means to befriend wolves.It won’t be my favorite King novel, but it did help to pass the time from coast to coast.
Perhaps it has happened to you as well.At some undisclosed period life became so busy that you felt as if—in a good southern California metaphor—you were riding on a huge wave and you couldn’t get off.Back in my teaching days I had time to plan my trips to AAR/SBL and fit in some human activities as well as maybe even getting around to see the outside once in a while.It’s great to run into so many people from every stage of my academic life—toddlerhood at Grove City College through my current doddering editorship—but I can’t help having the feeling that I’m popular now because I’m thought to have something others want.The keys to the kingdom.A possibility of getting published.
Those of you who read my daily reflections know that I’m glad to share publishing knowledge.I encourage academic authors to learn a bit about the publishing industry.It’s rapidly changing and when you have an inside track (here is the real added value) you need to look beyond your current book project to see what goes on behind the veil.Widen the focus.There’s a whole world out there!My glimpses out the hotel window inform me that there’s an entire bay to be explored.I watched seals or sea lions (it’s hard to tell from this distance) playing in the water as the sun rose.Then a seagull flew up and landed inches from my face on the windowsill of my room.It stayed for nearly a minute, looking me over as I looked it over.Noticing the tiny white feathers that formed a W on the edges of its beak.Its Silly Putty pink feet with small black nails.The emerging red patch on the underside of its bill.It took a step off the ledge, spread its wings and looked elsewhere for a snack.I soon learned why.A second later a larger gull landed in its place.We too regarded one another curiously.Had the glass not been there, we could’ve easily touched.It also lept off to be replaced by an even larger, more mature gull.None of the three were in any hurry to get away, but when they realized I couldn’t give them what they wanted, they left.
I’m a great fan of metaphor.Academic writing, unfortunately, doesn’t encourage the craft of utilizing it (neither does it often encourage being coherent).Later this morning—it will be early afternoon back home—I have to rush to the airport to catch a hopeful tailwind back east.Someone else will check into my room.If, perchance they sit by the window with the curtain drawn before dawn, the gulls will visit.And maybe a lesson will be taken away.
I wish I had more time for reading short stories.I grew up on them since, like many young boys I lacked the attention span for entire novels.Many collections of short stories sit on my shelves, but I’ve been drawn into the world of extended stories, perhaps because so much of reality bears escaping from these days.In any case, I find myself neglecting short story collections.I have a friend (and I tend not to name friends on this blog without their express permission—you might not want to be associated with Sects and Violence!) named Marvin who writes short stories.This past week his tale called “Meh Teh” appeared in The Colored Lens.Marvin often uses paranormal subjects for his speculative fiction.
“Meh-Teh” is a Himalayan term for “yeti.”Since we jealously guard our positions as the biggest apes on this planet, science doesn’t admit yetis to the realm of zoology without the “crypto” qualifier in front.Still, people from around the world are familiar with the concept of the abominable snowman.Maybe because I grew up watching animated Christmas specials, I knew from early days that a mythical, white ape lived in the mountains, and that he needed a visit to the dentist.The yeti has even become a pop culture export from Nepal, since those who know little else about that mountainous region know that strange footprints are found in the snow there.Apes, however, like to dominate so we tend to drive other apes to extinction.Still, they had to be there on the ark, along with all other cryptids.
I recall an episode of Leonard Nimoy’s In Search of that dealt with yetis.Or was it a Sun Pictures presentation about Noah’s Ark?I just remember the dramatic earthquake scene where either the skullcap of a yeti or a piece of the true ark was buried, lost forever under the rubble.Yeti is also a brand name for an outdoor goods company based, ironically, in Austin.This fantastical ape has become a spokesperson, or spokesape, for the great outdoors.All of this is a long way from the story Marvin spins about the great ape.As is typical of his fiction, religion plays a part.I really should make more time for reading short stories.In a world daily more demanding of time, that sounds like a solid investment.And free time is more rare than most cryptid sightings these days.
Humans don’t mean to be cruel, I’m pretty sure, when they test animals for intelligence.We’re a curious lot, perhaps a bit too self-absorbed, but we want to know how other animals are like us.Of course, we reserve actual thinking for ourselves, given how well we’ve managed to conserve our only environment, but we grant some special spark to our biological kin.So we devise tests for them.Since we can’t get beyond human experience, many of these tests are devised for creatures like us.When animals fail our superiority is reconfirmed.Then it’s back to the lab.I’ve got to wonder how it feels to the subject of the experiment (or is it object?).Some being that has mastered the art of capturing you, perhaps with the aid of alien technology, is trying to get you to understand something that’s only clear from its (the captor’s) viewpoint.You need to suss out that viewpoint and solve the puzzle in the same way.
This makes me think of many forms of religion.We’re born to a lower species (human) as the experimental subjects of gods, or a God, who watch(es) to see how we figure things out.There’s a right answer, of course, but we’re only given hints as to what it is.We’re given toys to play with—some of them dangerous—and we’re allowed to select clowns and buffoons to lead us.We can kill off unthinkable numbers of our own kind and the only clue that we’ve succeeded is some tasty treat at the end.Of course, we have to assume that the intelligence governing this whole farce is much greater than our own.Doesn’t feel so good, does it?
Holism is the ability to see a continuity in all of nature.And nature doesn’t just mean this warm globe on which we find ourselves.It’s vast and mysterious and some parts of it are very cold and others very hot.There are places we cannot go, and others that seem inevitable, given the choices.Like the victims of bullies we don’t think about the larger system, but seek to impose our wills on those who see things differently than we do.Some tote guns while others pack books.All of us will shoo away insects that buzz too close.Most of the animals “beneath” us will simply eat them.Is this all a game?Or is it some kind of experiment where we have to guess the answer, but with only a fraction of the information required?
Humans can be quite likable, but we have some nasty traits.One is that we tend to think of ourselves as the only intelligent beings on the planet.The funny thing about evolution is that it gave us both big brains and opposable thumbs—a winning combination to destroy the planet.(Just look at Washington, DC and try to disagree.)Jennifer Ackerman’s The Genius of Birds is poignant in this context.Page after page of nearly unbelievable displays of intelligence among birds demonstrates that we are hardly alone on the smarts scale.Birds make and use tools, have better memories than most of us do, and can solve problems that I even have trouble following.We tend to take birds for granted because they seem to flit everywhere, but the book ends soberly by noting how global warming is driving many species to extinction.
Homo sapiens (I’ll leave out the questionable and redundant second sapiens) like to think we’ve got it all figured out.We tend to forget that we too evolved for our environment—we adapt well, which has allowed us to change our environment and adapt to it (again, opposable thumbs).Many scientists therefore conclude that we are the most intelligent beings in existence.Ironically they make such assertions when it’s clear that other species can perceive things we can’t.Ackerman’s chapter on migration states what we well know—migrating birds can sense the earth’s magnetic field, something beyond the ability of humans.We lack the correct organ or bulb or lobe to pick up that signal.And yet we think we can rule out other forms of intelligence when we don’t even know all the forms of possible sensory input.We could learn a lot from looking at birds, including a little humility.
The Genius of Birds explores several different kinds of intelligence.What becomes clear is that birds, like people, have minds.Like human beings they come on a scale of intellectual ability that doesn’t suggest only one kind is necessary.For our large brains we can’t seem to get it through our thick skulls that we need biodiversity.We need other species to fill other niches and our own remarkable ability to thrive has only been because we are part of a tremendous, interconnected net encompassing all of life.Other species have contributed to our evolution as we clearly do to theirs.When we end up thinking that we alone are smart and our own prosperity alone matters we are sawing away at the branch on which we sit.Further up the birds look at us and wonder if we really know what we’re doing.