One of the most frequent accusations of “idolatry” I heard as a child was leveled at Roman Catholic devotion to the virgin Mary. Lessons learned during childhood are difficult to displace, especially when they concern your eternal destination. I overcame this particular objection, a bit, during my sojourn among the Episcopalians, but I have to confess I never felt right praying to Mary. In my Protestant-steeped mind, there were two classes of entities involved: gods (of which, properly, there was only one) and human beings. Only the former received prayers. The rest of us simply had to contend with non-supernatural powers and do the best we could. Still, I met many believers devoted to Mary, and honestly, some accounts of Marian apparitions are pretty impressive.
A local source for inexpensive advertising in our area is essentially a weekly set of want ads. For a small fee you can advertise just about anything you want to buy or have to sell. Spiritual or physical. A few weeks ago, someone ran a magnanimous piece on a prayer to the virgin never known to fail. The words of the prayer were printed, along with the instructions, for nothing is quite as simple as “ask and you shall receive.” The prayer must be recited thrice, and thanksgiving publicly proclaimed. A number of questions occurred to me, regarding not only this, but all prayers for divine action. One is the rather simple query of how you can know if a prayer has never failed. I suspect this is known by faith alone.
There are any number of things most of us would like to change about our lives, and the larger issue of prayer is the daisy-chaining of causality. One change causes another, causes another, and often that for which we pray will impact another person in a negative way. This is the classic “contradictory prayer” conundrum—one person prays for sunny skies while another prays for rain. Neither is evil, both have their reasons, perhaps equally important. (The weekday is a workday for many, and that’s non-negotiable in a capitalist society, so I suspect prayers for sunny skies tend to be weekend prayers, but still…) The prayer never known to fail is either a rock or a hard place. It’s that certitude that does it. I don’t begrudge anyone a prayer that works. Faith alone can test the results. And although we could use a little less rain around here, we could all benefit from a little more faith, I suspect. And for that there’s no fee.
Posted in American Religion, Consciousness, Deities, Posts, Sects, Weather
Tagged Blessed Virgin Mary, Episcopalians, faith, prayer, Protestantism, Roman Catholicism
“Turn! Turn! Turn,” the Byrds sang. “For everything there is a season,” quoth Solomon. Perhaps it’s the way we acquire knowledge, but lately many fields in academia are experiencing “turns.” The idea seems to be that if fields continue to turn, they will eventually all converge on the same intersection and true knowledge will be obtained. The post-modern turn, however, suggests that there is no objective knowledge. It kind of makes me dizzy, all this turning. Although I find the use of this particular noun in such phrases a touch unsophisticated, it’s here to stay. At least until academia takes another turn. Public intellectuals, after all, have to have something to say. And academics are capital imitators.
Ironically, within the same week I read of the “religious turn” in the humanities and a different turn within religious studies. This “religious turn” is not to suggest the humanities have found that old time religion, but rather that many disciplines are now realizing that religion has played, and continues to play, a very important role in human affairs. Fields that have traditionally avoided religious topics are now “turning” that way. At the same time that others are turning toward religion, religious studies is taking a “material turn.” The public intellectuals smile at the maze they’ve created as the paychecks roll in. The “material turn,” if I understand correctly, is that the ideas of religion can be explained via the real world needs that various religions meet. There’s no need for any divine character or intervention. There is no sacred or profane, but rather kinetic movement of shifting patterns that at any one time or place might be denominated as religions.
I’m all for progress, but I think I might’ve missed the turn. To my old school way of thinking, sacred and profane, Eliadian though they may be, still have great explanatory value. I don’t know if there’s objective knowledge to be found by fallen mortals such as we. The material world we experience through our senses is mediated by those very senses so our understanding is, of necessity, limited. We can’t touch naked reality even if we try. Our quest, in circumstances such as these, would seem to be digging deeper until we come to that which resists any tunneling. It’s like coming to the end of the physical universe and wondering what’s beyond this natural limit. Then, I suppose, you’d have to turn. Until such time as that, however, all of this present day turning is for the Byrds.
In America’s ever roving commercial eye, Día de Muertos has become an extension of Halloween. Retailers have realized that people will spend a lot on their fear, and the autumnal holidays delve into that primal territory. Since the Day of the Dead, being a mix of indigenous Mexican religions and the Catholic celebration of All Souls’ Day, comes two days after Halloween why not blur them together with greenbacks? So capitalist thinking goes. While certainly not free of monied interests, the Disney/Pixar movie Coco has the virtue of addressing Día de Muertos as the separate holiday that it is. A form of ancestor worship—a religion extremely common around the world—the thought-world of the film shares in common with Tim Burton’s Corpse Bride this idea that the afterlife is colorful, if not joyous.
I realize I’m jumping the gun here, but I just saw Coco for the first time over the weekend. Not just a culturally sensitive treatment of an indigenous holiday, it is also a celebration of music. In a very real sense, music is life in the film, and even the dead continue to thrive in its presence. Again, the connection with Corpse Bride suggests itself. The key difference, from a religionist’s point of view, is that Coco is based on, to an extent, actual religious traditions. An irony of this is that, together with the worship of Santa Muerte, the focus on death sometimes makes the Catholic Church nervous. Focus should be on resurrection, not death. But what if death isn’t seen as evil? Where is thy sting? This can be a real challenge when your organization is offering escape from death.
The fear of death is natural enough. It’s the ultimate unknown. It fuels both religion and horror. In that sense films like Coco that show a joyful aspect of the hereafter do an end-run around traditions that base their wares on ways to avoid the consequences of death. Hell becomes a threat to be avoided—the forgotten dead in Coco face annihilation, a fate that Héctor notes comes to everyone eventually. Eternal torment isn’t in the picture. I have to wonder if this view doesn’t present a form of salvation that is unwelcome among rival religions. Although Catholics don’t have the hostility toward Halloween that many Evangelicals display, there is a challenge of rival faiths here. Stores have already begun offering this year’s Halloween wares, and increasingly among them are Day of the Dead decorations. The holidays are quite distinct, although related, and movies like Coco suggest what we fear may be more a matter of perspective than of the decree of an angry deity.
Posted in American Religion, Consciousness, Holidays, Movies, Popular Culture, Posts, Sects
Tagged All Souls Day, Catholicism, Coco, Corpse Bride, Day of the Dead, Día de Muertos, Halloween, Hell, indigenous religion, music, Santa Muerte, Tim Burton
Inside, outside, upside-down. The more life moves toward binary code—what isn’t computerized these days?—the more scholars are moving away from simple binaries. Just when I thought I was getting used to this sacred/profane divide, academics are scrapping it for more nuanced paradigms not based on any assumptions of presumed deities and their projected wishes. Nothing as simple as “either/or” could justify all these salaries for stuff you can just look up on the internet, after all. Still, binaries are a very human way of looking at the world. Light and dark doesn’t mean there aren’t all the shades in between. And the very basic difference between inside and outside may be far more helpful than it might appear.
Being inside a religious tradition—really being inside—creates a pattern of thinking that frames all of one’s experience of life. While reading about the Book of Mormon recently this became clear to me. Looking at it from the outside is something those on the inside have great trouble doing. The same is true of various Eastern Orthodox Christian traditions, or Evangelicalism. Those living on the inside of tightly constrained ways of thinking—believing—can’t see what it looks like from the outside. I suspect that not all religions traditions fall into such ways of thinking; there are shades here. “Mainstream” Christianities, for example, tend to blend at the edges and those inside might have an idea of how those on the outside view them. Lutherans know the jokes about their outlooks and can even tell them. Methodists and Presbyterians too. They tend to conform a bit to expectations and tend not to be extremist about things. Being mainstream will do that to you.
It is unusual for a person to change religious traditions. Those who do can see their former tradition from the outside—whether mainstream of not—with a kind of objectivity that frightens true believers. Most religions have some tenets that look a bit unbelievable when viewed from outside. Once seen from that perspective, however, there’s no unseeing it. I grew up Fundamentalist. After some time in the mainstream Methodist tradition I could see Fundamentalism from the outside. When I eventually joined the Episcopal Church I had been viewing it from the outside my entire life up to that point. Looking at faith traditions inside out offers perspectives otherwise not to be had. Nobody wants to believe the wrong religion. Perhaps that’s why it’s so difficult to look at your own from the outside. You have to be willing to accept shades of gray, even if looking at it in a binary way.
Research can be addictive. Those who know me are generally aware of how I can’t let ideas go. I suppose this is necessary for those who write books—concentrating on one subject for a long time is mentally taxing and can lead to early loss of interest. Those of us inclined to embrace this activity live for the thrill of uncovering new ideas and making connections that we’d overlooked. My work on Nightmares with the Bible is a case in point. Before submitting this book proposal I’d done a lot of reading on the subject of demons. This is a dark topic, but those of us who live in temperate zones spend quite a bit of time without daylight, so I might think of this as a kind of therapy. Or an excuse to do research.
Here’s often what happens: I’ll be writing along when suddenly a new question pops into my head. Why was this or that the case? The internet makes amateur research quite easy, but as someone raised on solid scholarly food, I need to check my sources. When a professor I would’ve headed to the library with interlibrary loan slips in my hand. These days I tend to turn to my own books and lament that I don’t have just the right one (there’s a reason, you see, that there are so many tomes in this house). I try to find workarounds and used copies. Perhaps I’ll pick up an adjunct class or two to be given library access again. Meanwhile, the idea, like an ear worm, is burrowing into my conscious mind. Until it’s time to go to work.
That great eight-hour stretch of day drains my energy. Indeed, many employers count on taking the best you have to offer and making it their own. What you do with “the rest of your time” is up to you. Thing is, research is a full-time job. Fortunately some of what I learn while on the clock will help me with my own research agenda. The overlap isn’t especially strong, but now and again something I read in a manuscript will sync with what I do in the pre-dawn hours before I commit myself to the time-clock. It’s a strange way to do research. Back at Nashotah House I’d use the summers to follow the clues laid before my mind and, as long as I went to chapel, it was considered part of my employment. Now it’s considered an avocation. I can’t help myself, though. Personal research is not part of the job description, but I’m an addict when it comes to learning new things.
Pop culture borrows from religion without knowing it. Or maybe it’s just that religion has become so irrelevant that people no longer care. Whichever may be the case, those who contribute to pop culture have a rich treasury from which to take withdrawals. This occurred to me while waiting for a bus into New York. Many people don’t want to stand in line (who does, really?). In the Park-n-Ride subculture, you may leave an avatar in your place. It’s probably not called an avatar, but since there’s nobody here to ask, I’m going to use the pop culture name. You put your bag on the pavement, marking your place and then go sit in your car. Since I’m going to be sitting in a big car for the next two hours, I prefer to stand outside.
The idea of an avatar is mediated to most people through either computer language or the movie. I first encountered the term in the former sense in Neal Stephenson’s Snow Crash. I was an internet neophyte and had trouble conceiving a virtual world in those days. Some time later came the latter. James Cameron’s film embodied the idea—linked through software, the tired hardware of physical bodies could be given new life. In some senses it was an even better life. Now everyone knows what an avatar is. Perhaps except that the idea is native to Hinduism.
Hinduism was never an organized, intentional religion such as Christianity. It is rather a wide array of traditional beliefs that, in the light of missionary activity, had to be given a name. There are many gods in Hinduism, and when a deity descends to earth s/he appears in a form recognizable to humans—an avatar. Not being an Indologist, my understanding of the concept is very basic, but it’s enough to know that this religious idea found a role in pop culture first through computer representations of human beings. We had flattered ourselves with being gods, since we had created a virtual world. A world we couldn’t physically enter. Avatars were, therefore, how we wanted others to experience us. Snow Crash is peopled with all kinds of representations. The internet today, nearly 30 years on, has many more. After all, there are many gods.
I glance at my watch. The bus should be here any minute now. When it enters the lot I’ll see the deities behind these canvas and leather avatars. They’ll be less impressive than I’ve imagined them, I’m sure. And although we’ve created virtual reality, I still have to get on a physical bus to go to virtual work.
Posted in American Religion, Consciousness, Deities, Memoirs, Popular Culture, Posts, Religious Origins, Sects, Travel
Tagged Avatar, Hinduism, James Cameron, Neal Stephenson, New York City, Park-n-Ride, Snow Crash, virtual reality