I had to make one of my periodic treks into New York City this week. Unlike most years when a warm spell comes after the onset of winter, we’ve kind of fallen straight to the heart of the season this year and those of us standing in line for the bus were experiencing it via wind chill. The cold got some regulars to talking about Christmas. Although I’m not the oldest one who makes this long trip, the majority of the commuters this far out have yet to attain my years. Those chatting at the stop had kids at home that still believe in Santa Claus. It made me recall how we trick our kids with all kinds of quasi-religious folkloric figures, but also how seriously some adults participate in the mythology as well.
Among those chatting, the leaving out of cookies and carrots was almost canonical. The cookies are for Santa, of course, and the carrots for the reindeer. The more I pondered this, the more it became clear that this is a form of thank offering. The story of Bel and the Dragon, in the Apocrypha additions to Daniel, tell of how priests leave out food for an idol. The offering is gone in the morning and the credulous worshippers assume the statue has eaten it. Religious offerings, except those entirely burnt up, were often used to support priesthoods. Santa has his elfly acolytes, of course, but the priesthood for his cult is that of parents eager to make Christmas a special time for their children. Capitalism’s big pay-off.
Then one of the commuters mentioned how she had her husband leave a footprint in the fireplace ash to add verisimilitude to the ruse. We never had a fireplace when I was growing up, and I often wondered how Santa got in when we had no chimney to come down. In any case, my hazy morning mind thought once again of Daniel and Bel. The way that wily Daniel exposed the fraudulent priests was by sprinkling—you guessed it—a fine layer of ash around the offering after the priests had “left” for the night. In the morning he showed the people the footprints of the deceptive heathens to the people. The statue hadn’t eaten the food after all! Serious consequences followed. Christmas, despite its commercialization, brings fond childhood memories to many of us, and we’re reluctant to let that go. The one man in on the discussion (it wasn’t me) said that when he was growing up they had a somewhat different offering. “My dad,” he said, “told us to leave Santa a beer and a sandwich.” This guy’s name might’ve been Daniel.
Posted in American Religion, Bible, Current Events, Holidays, Memoirs, Posts, Religious Origins, Sects
Tagged Apocrypha, Bel and the Dragon, Christmas, commuting, Daniel, New York City, Santa Claus
I remember it clearly. The ubiquity of technology robs me of the memory of how I knew about it, but there was plenty of pre-internet buzz. A new Bible translation was being published and people were very excited. Including me. By the time the New International Version (NIV) was set to appear, I had read every translation of the Good Book I knew, cover-to-cover. Being a good evangelical, I started with the King James. I’d read it a time or two, then moved on to the Revised Standard Version. As you might guess, with my interests I didn’t have a lot of friends, but I do recall people complaining that it wasn’t literal enough. I’d read the Living Bible, and the Good News Bible. My favorite was probably the New American Standard Bible, though, because it was as close to languages I then didn’t know as I could get.
We didn’t have much money in my family, and since my summer jobs covered the cost of my school clothes, disposable income was fairly rare. But then a miracle. Christmas morning I opened my “big gift”—a brand new NIV. In a way that is somehow difficult to recapture these days, I was absurdly happy getting a new Bible. I started reading it right away. Little did I know it would become the best-selling modern English translation of all time. And that’s saying something—Bibles are big business. The reason for the NIV’s appeal was that it was Evangelical-friendly. No awkward issues like inclusive language, and, to be honest, a nicely rendered English.
Being in the Bibles business I decided to read about who was behind the NIV and found an unexpected connection with Rutgers University, where I used to teach. The owner of the NIV translation is Biblica. Biblica is the name of the International Bible Society, initially founded in 1809 as the New York Bible Society. In a way that’s hard to imagine in today’s New York City, that’s where the group formed. One of its founders? Henry Rutgers. Eventually the New York Bible Society became international, and like many good evangelicals, moved to Colorado Springs. The money from continuing sales of the NIV must contribute to their somewhat posh-looking campus. Meanwhile, Rutgers University has moved in quite a different direction.
Connections like this have always fascinated me. Although much detritus has flowed under the bridge with all that water, I can still feel that brief, sharp release of endorphins when I pick up my well-used NIV. I think of days of naive faith and all that has come after. Yes, Bibles are big business, and yet somehow so very small.
Posted in American Religion, Bible, Memoirs, Posts, Sects
Tagged Bible, Biblica, Evangelical, Henry Rutgers, International Bible Society, New International Version, New York Bible Society, New York City, NIV
Timing has never been my strong suit. As soon as I stopped my daily commute to New York City, the Morgan Library and Museum opened a display titled “Medieval Monsters: Terrors, Aliens, Wonders.” To appreciate the irony of this fully, you need to realize my office was just across the street from the Morgan Library, and the daily visits would’ve provided a good opportunity for a lunch-time break with my beloved monsters. Instead I was spending the time moving further west and unpacking. Still, displays like this are a tacit form of validation. Those of us who admit, as adults, that we like monsters huddle under a cloud of suspicion. Monsters are a matter for kids—like dinosaurs and fairies—not something on which an upwardly mobile adult spends his time. We’ll take whatever validation we can get.
Perhaps we’ve been too hasty to dismiss our monsters. Even the Bible, after all, has them. They help us cope in a chaotic and uncertain world. A world of hurricanes and Trump. A world lacking compassion and sense. Monsters have always been symbols of the borderlands. Creatures that cross boundaries and that shouldn’t exist but somehow do nevertheless. Science has helped us understand our world, but in our desire to grow up enough to use Occam’s razor, we find that it shaves a little too close. Besides, what can be more unnatural than shaving? When we lose our ability to believe in monsters, we lose a piece of our ability to cope with an unpredictable world. Monsters have their practical uses indeed.
If the world were more predictable, I would still be teaching instead of editing. Or I’d still be living in an apartment rather than a house. Moving is chaos embodied. Like monsters, it’s best left to the young. It’s just like this world for a monster display to open just across the street right when you’ve moved out of town. I should expect no less in a cosmos marked by uncertainty. Medieval Monsters isn’t the only museum display of the weird and wonderful. Monsters have a way of showing up again once you think they’re safely gone. Family and friends share with me their visits to other monster exhibits at other museums. They may wonder at my fascination with them—an adult with a sober doctorate in the field of history of religions, biblical studies, ancient Near Eastern religions, whatever. It’s kind of a monster in its own right, on display here daily. If you happen to miss it, don’t worry. It’ll remain lurking in its own corner of the internet.
Posted in Bible, Classical Mythology, Current Events, Just for Fun, Monsters, Posts, Travel
Tagged aliens, Medieval Monsters, Morgan Library and Museum, New York City, Occam's razor, Terrors, Wonders
At various points of my career I’ve applied for museum curator positions. Since those who actually land those jobs have degrees in museum studies, I’ve never gotten as far as an interview. Still, I like to think I’d be good at it. I spend time in museums and I’ve been told I have an okay eye for design. And I recently read that museums are educational institutions. That makes sense since people tend to be visual learners. (This is something I took into account in my classes as well, illustrating lectures to make a point. The traditional academic feels that pictures are somehow “soft” learning as opposed to the harsh realities of text and word-based instruction, but I beg to differ.) We see things and they stick with us.
On a visit to the New York Historical Society museum I once looked at their somewhat abbreviated sculpture collection. This isn’t the Met, after all. One of the tricks I’ve learned about museum displays is that some curators place subtle humor in their framing of objects. For example, my gaze was drawn to a figure of a pilgrim. A stern-looking fellow, he’s captured in full stride, massive Bible tucked under his arm, determined frown on his face. This is a man trying to create Heaven on earth, dour though it may be. Taking a step back, my camera found a smile in this image. On either side of this angry Christian were two naked women: one was apparently Artemis with her bow, the other perhaps a Muse. The lines of the display draw attention to this juxtaposition. There’s some humor here, intentional or not.
This also takes me back to yesterday’s post about Heaven. Perceptions of what it is differ. There’s a mindset like the pilgrim that sees a life of suffering being rewarded in the hereafter with endless bliss. I do have to wonder whether too much hardship down here might not make one forget how to enjoy oneself. It’s difficult to picture a Puritan in rapture. It’s as if the journey—the hard road—is the real source of enjoyment here. Each of us, I suppose, has her or his own view of Heaven. Mine’s kind of like a library with all the time in the world without end to read. Others, I suspect, would find paradise as a garden. Yet others would see Heaven as a kind of museum, but it would be one where laughing out loud was okay, for the Curator definitely has a sense of humor.
Posted in American Religion, Art, Higher Education, Posts, Sects, Travel
Tagged Artemis, Heaven, Muses, museums, New York City, New York Historical Society Museum, Pilgrims
A family friend recently died. I was in New York City when I received the news, and I mused how recent a phenomenon this speed of information is. The news wasn’t necessarily a shock—this friend had been experiencing failing health, he was a close friend of my grandfather—but for some reason Samuel F. B. Morse came to mind. The story goes that Morse invented the telegraph because of his experience of being away from home when his wife died. By the time he received the news and was able to get home by the conveyance of the day, she’s already been buried. He set his inventive mind to improving the speed of communication over a distance. In these days of receiving texts mere seconds after something momentous happens, it’s difficult to imagine that for the vast majority of human existence, personal news traveled slowly.
Feeling in a reflective mood I recalled how when I was in college I wrote letters home. Yes, the telephone existed by then—don’t be so cynical!—but long distance bore a cost and college students find ways to save their money for girlfriends or spending a weekend in Pittsburgh. News traveled more slowly. Back before Morse, the swiftest option was the letter. The death of a friend might take days or weeks to reach those close. Distance in time, as well as space, may not have lessened the shock, but the immediacy of a text wasn’t there. The death had occurred days or weeks ago. There was nothing left to do but grieve and get on with life. Like Samuel Morse—perhaps the only point of comparison between us—I was unable to get away immediately. New York City isn’t easy to escape quickly.
We move swiftly and slowly at the same time. I know news moments from the event, but this physical mass I inhabit is sluggish takes some time to get around. Manhattan’s an island, and although it’s not Styx we’re crossing, the Hudson creates barriers enough. Now my journey includes crossing the entire state of New Jersey before I can even reach home. Were I to drive back to my original home, it would add another five hours at least in the car. Sometimes I wonder if the immediacy of knowing is a blessing or a curse. The shock is immediate and visceral. But like an injection, the sharpness is quickly over and the dull ache sets in. Our family friend had been suffering for some time. Now he’s at peace. I like to think he’s with my granddad, and that the two of them together won’t judge me too harshly for moving so slowly.
Posted in Current Events, Memoirs, Posts, Science, Travel
Tagged death, Homer Sitterley, Internet, New York City, Samuel F. B. Morse, telegraph, Time, travel
Pop culture borrows from religion without knowing it. Or maybe it’s just that religion has become so irrelevant that people no longer care. Whichever may be the case, those who contribute to pop culture have a rich treasury from which to take withdrawals. This occurred to me while waiting for a bus into New York. Many people don’t want to stand in line (who does, really?). In the Park-n-Ride subculture, you may leave an avatar in your place. It’s probably not called an avatar, but since there’s nobody here to ask, I’m going to use the pop culture name. You put your bag on the pavement, marking your place and then go sit in your car. Since I’m going to be sitting in a big car for the next two hours, I prefer to stand outside.
The idea of an avatar is mediated to most people through either computer language or the movie. I first encountered the term in the former sense in Neal Stephenson’s Snow Crash. I was an internet neophyte and had trouble conceiving a virtual world in those days. Some time later came the latter. James Cameron’s film embodied the idea—linked through software, the tired hardware of physical bodies could be given new life. In some senses it was an even better life. Now everyone knows what an avatar is. Perhaps except that the idea is native to Hinduism.
Hinduism was never an organized, intentional religion such as Christianity. It is rather a wide array of traditional beliefs that, in the light of missionary activity, had to be given a name. There are many gods in Hinduism, and when a deity descends to earth s/he appears in a form recognizable to humans—an avatar. Not being an Indologist, my understanding of the concept is very basic, but it’s enough to know that this religious idea found a role in pop culture first through computer representations of human beings. We had flattered ourselves with being gods, since we had created a virtual world. A world we couldn’t physically enter. Avatars were, therefore, how we wanted others to experience us. Snow Crash is peopled with all kinds of representations. The internet today, nearly 30 years on, has many more. After all, there are many gods.
I glance at my watch. The bus should be here any minute now. When it enters the lot I’ll see the deities behind these canvas and leather avatars. They’ll be less impressive than I’ve imagined them, I’m sure. And although we’ve created virtual reality, I still have to get on a physical bus to go to virtual work.
Posted in American Religion, Consciousness, Deities, Memoirs, Popular Culture, Posts, Religious Origins, Sects, Travel
Tagged Avatar, Hinduism, James Cameron, Neal Stephenson, New York City, Park-n-Ride, Snow Crash, virtual reality